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This complete review published on August in PLOS Pathogens talks about the interaction between "pathogenic" Candida albicans and epithelial cells in mucosal surfaces, how "pathogenic" strains are identified and how epithelial activation induces innate and adaptive immunity.

Candida species are one of the most common fungal pathogens of humans and the causative agents of superficial and invasive candidiasis. The vast majority of Candida infections are mucosal, manifesting as vaginal or oral candidiasis, which together account for an estimated 40 million infections per year. High-level Candida colonisation is also associated with several gut diseases, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, and reducing fungal burdens reduces disease severity. Additionally, Candida species are an ever-increasing problem in immunocompromised patients. Furthermore, in common with the vast majority of life-threatening systemic infections, systemic Candida infections are usually acquired through mucosal surfaces. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand how epithelial tissues detect and restrict these pathogens to mucosal surfaces.”

Naglik JR, Richardson JP, Moyes DL (2014) Candida albicans Pathogenicity and Epithelial Immunity. PLoS Pathog 10(8): e1004257. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004257

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