Abstract We investigated an outbreak of exanthematous illness in Maceió by using molecular surveillance; 76% of samples tested positive for chikungunya virus. Genetic analysis of 23 newly generated genomes identified the East/Central/South African genotype, suggesting that this lineage has persisted since mid-2014 in Brazil and may spread in the Americas and beyond.
AREF-EDCTP have announced a joint call for a Preparatory Fellowship programme, due to be initiated in 2018.
Abstract Background Chikungunya fever is a globally spreading mosquito-borne disease that shows an unexpected neu- rovirulence. Even though the neurological complications have been a major cause of intensive care unit admission and death, to date, there is no systematic analysis of their spectrum available. Objective To review evidence of neurological manifesta- tions in Chikungunya fever and map their epidemiology, clinical spectrum, pathomechanisms, diagnostics, therapies and outcomes. Methods Case report and systematic review of the litera- ture followed established guidelines. All cases found were assessed using a 5-step clinical diagnostic algorithm assigning categories A–C, category A representing the highest level of quality. Only A and B cases were con- sidered for further analysis. After general analysis, cases were clustered according to geospatial criteria for subgroup analysis. Results Thirty-six of 1196 studies were included, yielding 130 cases. Nine were ranked as category A (diagnosis of Neuro-Chikungunya probable), 55 as B (plausible), and 51 as C (disputable). In 15 cases, alternative diagnoses were more likely. Patient age distribution was bimodal with a mean of 49 years and a second peak in infants. Fifty per- cent of the cases occurred in patients <45 years with no reported comorbidity. Frequent diagnoses were encephali- tis, optic neuropathy, neuroretinitis, and Guillain–Barre ́ syndrome. Neurologic conditions showing characteristics of a direct viral pathomechanism showed a peak in infants and a second one in elder patients, and complications and neurologic sequelae were more frequent in these groups. Autoimmune-mediated conditions appeared mainly in patients over 20 years and tended to show longer latencies and better outcomes. Geospatial subgrouping of case reports from either India or Re ́union revealed diverging phenotypic trends (Re ́union: 88% direct viral vs. India: 81% autoimmune). ConclusionsDirect viral forms of Neuro-Chikungunya seem to occur particularly in infants and elderly patients, while autoimmune forms have to be also considered in middle-aged, previously healthy patients, especially after an asymptomatic interval. This knowledge will help to identify future Neuro-Chikungunya cases and to improve outcome especially in autoimmune-mediated conditions. The genetics of Chikungunya virus might play a key role in determining the course of neuropathogenesis. With further research, this could prove diagnostically significant.
Invitation to complete quick survey to improve Kaplan-Meier plots (KMunicate) ProblemThe standard way to present time-to-event data, such as survival, is with Kaplan-Meier plots. These are formatted by journals and reported in a number of ways, but we find they commonly lack some key information. The key problems are:
- Expressing how many people are contributing data at any point in the graph, including the pattern of censoring
- Expressing that the uncertainty of the estimate increases over time
This is a great video of a talk given at the Oxford Martin School by Professor Kevin Marsh.
King's College London is currently inviting applications for the post of Research Associate
Global health and public health practitioners use Health Economics to better understand the decisions that get made that affect health.
The Epidemiological evauation of vaccines course: efficacy, safety and policy
Epidemic curves are an important component of the public health and global health toolbox. Learn more about creating and interpretting them.
AREF is calling for researcher applications to participate in its 2nd Essential Grant Writing Skills Workshop, to be held in Dakar, Senegal, in May 2017.
This video seminar describes research to develop a low-cost, field-based test to detect several slow-clearing ACT drug compounds from unprocessed fingerstick blood samples
If you want to find a job in global health, this is for you.
The European Mobile Laboratory, EMLab, was the first EBOV diagnostics unit deployed to the outbreak epicentre by WHO in March 2014.
Laboratory systems and diagnostic technologies are a critical pillar in the fight against malaria. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends diagnostic testing for all people with suspected malaria before treatment is administered.
In the last decade, Ethiopia has achieved numerous public health successes, among them early attainment of health-related Millennium Development Goals, a strong tuberculosis (TB) management programme, and progress toward eradication of Guinea worm disease.
An interview with US Ambassador and GHSA Champion Dr. Bonnie Jenkins
Join us in Oxford on the 25th of April to mark World Malaria Day 2016 at a series of talks and a panel discussion. The speakers will present their latest projects and help us to understand the unique and interconnected findings of their research.
Uganda has shown particular success in its National Sample and Results Transport Network (NSRTN).
If you're interested in Global Health then keep an eye on This Week in Global Health (TWiGH). TWiGH is a live, interactive, weekly global health news update. With Dr Greg Martin.
Travel Medicine and Infectious Diseases have evolved rapidly in recent decades as outbreaks such as SARS, Avian Influenza, Ebola, MERS, Chikungunya, and Zika virus have demonstrated how quickly infections can cross international borders.